Parts of the Angiosperms and Importance

Parts of the Angiosperms and ImportanceAngiosperms, flowering plants or magnoliophytes (the division is also called Magnoliophyta) make up a group of the kingdom Plantae distinguishable by producing showy flowers. There are approximately 250,000-400,000 species of angiosperms, and they can adapt to various types of habitats.

The popular roses, asparagus, tomatoes and sunflowers are examples of angiosperms easily recognized and used by humans. In the case of asparagus and tomato plants, their flowers are not the most used parts, but their stems and fruits are, respectively. We find, therefore, the predominant type of plants in human nutrition.

The largest families of angiosperms are orchids, Compositae and Legume; Beans belong to the latter.

Structure of Angiosperms

Angiosperms come in a multitude of shapes , sizes and colors. However, its flowers are the most striking, since they are usually showy and many of them are scented. Like gymnosperms, these plants have a root, stem and leaves. In the flowers are the reproductive organs, where the pollen and ovules are housed and where fertilization of the ovule and the development of the fruit take place.

A large part of angiosperms is hermaphrodite, that is, they have male and female organs at the same time, but in other species the sexes are separated, so there are male and female flowers. Some other flowers are asexual, they have neither androecium (stamens) nor gynoecium (pistils) and are considered asexual or neutral.

Parts of the Angiosperms

A typical angiosperm flower consists of:

  • Sepals: They are the envelopes of a flower in its first stages of development. They protect the cocoon, so they fulfill a protective function.
  • Petals: These are the parts that surround the reproductive organs and are often brightly colored as they serve to attract pollinating animals. In some plants, the petals are nonexistent or very small in size. The set of petals is called the “corolla”.
  • Pistils: Organ located in the center of the flower that has ovaries, style and stigmas. It is the female sexual organ par excellence of the flower and there may be 1 or more.
  • Carpels: They are modified leaves that surround the ovule and form the ovary. It also contains the developing seeds, which can become fruits.
  • Stigma: These are the tips of a carpel or several carpels and the site where pollen germinates.
  • Style: It is the extension of the ovary that leads to the stigma.
  • Ovary: Cavity in the lower area of ​​the pistil, which contains the ovules.
  • Stamens: Male flower-producing organs, which produce pollen grains. In some species they are attached to the petals, but in others they are attached to the base of the flower. The set of stamens constitutes the androecium.
  • Anther: An anther is generally made up of two lobes or “thecae” at the tip, and is specifically where pollen is produced.
  • Filament: It is the base of the stamen.

When pollen fertilizes the ovule located in an ovary, a seed begins to develop, so the seeds of a flower start from a mature fertilized ovule. In its structure is the embryo and the albumen or reserve tissue for the nutrition of the embryo.

This is made up of a radicle or small root, a stem and the cotyledons , which are small leaves that are located in the germ of the seeds. A fruit develops from an ovary, which, as you well know, can have one or more seeds. Just as the wall of a woman’s womb prepares to house a baby, the wall of the ovary changes to give rise to the wall of the fruit.

Types of Angiosperms

  • Dicotyledons: Their seeds have two cotyledons. Its leaves have reticulated veins, that is, they are not parallel to each other, as in the case of roses and sunflowers.
  • Monocotyledons : They have a single cotyledon, like rice, wheat and corn plants, but flowers such as orchids and daffodils are also monocotyledons.

Importance of Angiosperms

It is the most important group of plants for human beings, since basic foods in the diet come from them: potatoes, tomatoes, wheat, apples, strawberries, oats, sugar cane, oranges and a Endless foods of plant origin. 

Flowers are an inherent part of human culture, and some of their diet as well. They are used as decoration in homes and public buildings , as gifts, as fragrance ingredients, etc. From some angiosperms, basic ingredients are obtained in formulas to treat diseases and from others, fibers useful in the textile industry are obtained. This is the case of cotton, linen and hemp.

Threats to Angiosperms

Although they are the most abundant and diverse group of plants, many angiosperms are scarce today and must be cared for as much as possible to preserve them for a long time on the planet. For example, the feather-leaved banksia or Brown’s banksia ( Banksia brownii ) is distributed only in southwestern Australia and has a low fruiting rate, making it endangered. The cactus Coryphantha pycnacantha , endemic to the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, is also in danger of extinction, as are the species Delphinium bakeri, Echinocactus grusonii, Endiandra floydii, Dudleya traskiae and Hylocereus costaricensis .

Some governments take on the task of protecting endangered species on their territory. The challenges are focused, above all, on facing forest fires, the expansion of human populations, the introduction of non-native species that can become pests and even human ignorance about endangered plants.

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