Difference Between Biography and Autobiography


Biography and autobiography are two distinct genres of literature that provide insights into the lives of individuals. While both share the common goal of recounting someone’s life story, there are fundamental differences between them. In this article, we will explore the characteristics, purposes, and examples of biography and autobiography.

What is a Biography?

A biography is a written account of a person’s life, usually written by someone else. It is an objective portrayal of an individual’s experiences, achievements, and significant events. Biographies aim to provide a comprehensive overview of a person’s life, highlighting their contributions, impact, and the context in which they lived.

Characteristics of a Biography

  • – Written by a third-party author.
  • – Based on extensive research and interviews.
  • – Provides an external perspective on the subject’s life.
  • – Includes a broader historical and social context.
  • – Objective and factual presentation of events.

Examples of Biographies

  • – “Steve Jobs” by Walter Isaacson: A biography of the renowned Apple co-founder, Steve Jobs, which delves into his personal and professional life, offering insights into his innovations and leadership.
  • – “The Diary of a Young Girl” by Anne Frank: Though considered a diary, it also serves as a biography as it recounts the life of Anne Frank during World War II and her experiences hiding from the Nazis.

What is an Autobiography?

An autobiography is a self-written account of a person’s life, narrated by the subject themselves. It provides a firsthand perspective on their experiences, thoughts, and emotions. Autobiographies give individuals the opportunity to reflect on their lives, share personal anecdotes, and convey their unique perspectives.

Characteristics of an Autobiography

  • – Written by the subject of the autobiography.
  • – Offers a personal and intimate insight into the author’s life.
  • – Reflects the author’s thoughts, emotions, and personal growth.
  • – Typically focuses on significant events and experiences.
  • – May include subjective interpretations and reflections.

Examples of Autobiographies

  • – “The Autobiography of Malcolm X” by Malcolm X and Alex Haley: Malcolm X chronicles his journey from his troubled youth to his transformation as a prominent civil rights activist, sharing his experiences with racial discrimination and his advocacy for equality.
  • – “The Diary of a Young Girl” by Anne Frank: Although often categorized as a diary, Anne Frank’s work can also be considered an autobiography as it provides a firsthand account of her life during the Holocaust.

Key Differences between Biography and Autobiography


A biography is written from an external perspective by a third-party author, while an autobiography is written from a first-person perspective by the subject of the book.


Biographies are written by someone other than the subject, while autobiographies are written by the person whose life story is being depicted.

Objectivity vs. Subjectivity

Biographies strive for objectivity by presenting factual information and providing a broader historical context. Autobiographies, on the other hand, are subjective and reflect the author’s personal experiences, emotions, and interpretations.

Research and Interviews

Biographies often involve extensive research, interviews with people who knew the subject, and the use of primary and secondary sources. Autobiographies rely on the author’s memory and personal recollections.


Biographies aim to provide an objective and comprehensive account of a person’s life, focusing on their impact and contributions to society. Autobiographies allow individuals to share their personal experiences, perspectives, and reflections.

Impacts and Considerations

Insights into Historical Figures

Biographies offer valuable insights into the lives of historical figures, providing a deeper understanding of their achievements, struggles, and the social and cultural contexts in which they lived.

Personal Connection and Empathy

Autobiographies enable readers to connect with the author on a personal level, fostering empathy and understanding. They allow individuals to relate to the author’s experiences and gain inspiration from their personal growth.

Ethical Considerations

Biographies must maintain ethical standards and ensure accuracy, fairness, and respect for the subject’s privacy. Autobiographies may face challenges in maintaining objectivity and may be influenced by the author’s biases and selective memory.

Importance of Diverse Narratives

Both biography and autobiography play a crucial role in amplifying diverse voices and sharing stories that might otherwise go unheard. They contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of human experiences and promote inclusivity.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1: Can an autobiography be biased?
A1: Yes, an autobiography can be biased as it is written from the author’s perspective and may be influenced by their personal beliefs, emotions, and memories. It is essential for readers to be aware of potential biases and consider multiple perspectives when interpreting an autobiography.

Q2: Are all biographies written after the subject’s death?
A2: No, not all biographies are written after the subject’s death. Some biographies are written during the subject’s lifetime, with their cooperation and input. However,biographies can also be written posthumously, relying on research and interviews with people who knew the subject.

Q3: Can an autobiography be considered a form of self-reflection?
A3: Yes, an autobiography often serves as a means of self-reflection for the author. It allows them to revisit their past experiences, analyze their choices and growth, and share their personal insights with readers.

Q4: Are there any famous biographies or autobiographies that have impacted society significantly?
A4: Yes, there are several biographies and autobiographies that have had a profound impact on society. For example, “The Diary of a Young Girl” by Anne Frank has become a symbol of the Holocaust and a testament to the resilience of the human spirit. Similarly, “The Autobiography of Malcolm X” has been influential in addressing issues of racial inequality and promoting civil rights.

Q5: Are there any limitations to biographies and autobiographies?
A5: Biographies and autobiographies have limitations, as they are subjective to the author’s perspective and memory. They may also face challenges in maintaining objectivity and can be influenced by biases, omissions, or selective storytelling.


Biographies and autobiographies provide unique insights into the lives of individuals, offering readers the opportunity to explore the experiences, challenges, and achievements of others. While biographies offer an objective and external perspective, autobiographies provide a personal and intimate account of the author’s life. Both genres contribute to a deeper understanding of history, foster empathy, and inspire readers to reflect on their own lives. Whether it’s learning about historical figures or connecting with personal narratives, the world of biographies and autobiographies offers a rich tapestry of human experiences. So, grab a book and embark on a journey through someone’s life!

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