Galicia is best known for Santiago de Compostela with the Romanesque cathedral, the end point of the famous pilgrimage route. Other interesting cities are the commercial city of A Coruña, the fortified city of Lugo and Vigo, the largest fishing port in Spain. The towns along the coast of the wild Rías Altas, in the north, are excellent seaside resorts. The Rías Baixas, the southern part of the west coast, offers sheltered coves, sandy beaches and plenty of seafood. The interior has a green, hilly landscape where tradition is still upheld in towns and villages. The Galicians are descended from the Celts and are proud of their language and culture.
- Top locations
- Top hotel in Galicia
- Food and drink
- Party and event
- Sports activities
- Travel to Galicia
- Traveling in Galicia
Galicia, Northwestern Spain / Source: Mutxamel, Wikimedia Commons (GFDL)
The greenest region of the country, Galicia, is located in the northwest of Spain. It is one of the 17 autonomous regions of Spain. Galicia has an area of 29,574 km² and has more than 2.7 million inhabitants (2016). The capital is Santiago de Compostela with almost 96,000 inhabitants (2016). Galicia is bordered in the south by Portugal. The east borders the regions of Asturias and Castile-León. The west and north borders the Atlantic Ocean.
Santiago de Compostela is the main attraction of Galicia. This beautiful city is the center of an area with many old towns such as Lugo, Ourense, Vigo and A Coruña. The coast of Galicia is cut by many rias, a kind of fjords. The most beautiful are the rias of the Rías Baixas, on the southwest coast. To the north is Cabo Fisterra, the westernmost tip of continental Spain. The green landscape inland is an ideal area for a quiet, rural holiday.
The earliest period
Galicia has been inhabited for at least 36,000 years. In the nearby region of Cantabria, petroglyphs dating back 36,000 years have been found. Galicia was probably inhabited much earlier. Remains of early humans dating back about 800,000 years have been discovered around the town of Burgos, about 300 km east of Galicia.
Its history begins with the arrival of the Phoenicians, approximately between the 11th and 8th centuries BC. From about 600 B.C. the Celts settled in Galicia and settlements were founded there. They mixed with the Iberian tribes and thus laid the foundation for the Celtiberian culture.
In 61 B.C. Galicia was conquered by the Romans and the province of Gallaecia was founded. The Romans built many roads, bridges and aqueducts. The historic city of Lugo still has a Roman city wall. When the Roman Empire began at the beginning of the 5th century AD. weakened, the region was occupied by the Vandals and the Suevi. At the end of the 6th century, the Suevi were expelled by the Visigoths, who introduced Christianity.
The 8th century
In 711, the weakened Visigothic kingdom was conquered by the Moors. They occupy almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. The occupation by the Moors had little influence on Galicia. Almost immediately after the occupation by the Moors, the reconquista started in Northern Spain. The neighboring region of Asturias became a kingdom in 722. Later, other Christian states also emerged, such as Navarre, Castile and León. At the beginning of the 8th century, the Moors were expelled from Galicia and it was briefly independent. In 744, Galicia was conquered by Afonso I of Asturias.
The 9th to the 15th century
In 813, a grave was discovered in a church in Galicia that was believed to be that of the apostle James the Greater. He is said to have preached in Galicia. The site of his grave became the religious center of the Christian states of Spain under the name Santiago de Compostela. The spiritual power it provided provided enormous support in the fight against the Muslims. From the 9th to the 11th century, Galicia suffered invasions by the Normans. In 977, the Santiago Cathedral was destroyed in one of these attacks.
In 910, Galicia managed to break away from the Kingdom of Asturias and the Kingdom of Galicia was created. However, in 1072 it was annexed by Castile-León, a powerful kingdom in northwestern Spain. The marriage of the ‘Catholic Kings’ Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile united almost all areas of Spain in 1469. Galicia also now belonged to the kingdom of Spain.
The 16th and 17th centuries
The voyages of discovery led to a growth in trade, which promoted the rise of cities on the coast of Galicia. However, growth was limited by the king’s wish that all major trade with Spanish America should pass through Seville. The Spanish Empire was also constantly involved in wars. In 1588 the Spanish Armada attacked England. In response, Francis Drake launched an attack on Vigo and A Coruña in 1589. These attacks were successfully repulsed. Wars and economic decline exhausted Spain. Around 1650 the unstoppable decline of the empire began and the role of Galicia became less and less important. Overpopulation and unemployment forced many to emigrate.
The 18th and 19th centuries
Things improved again in Galicia in the 18th century. During the Bourbon dynasty, from 1700 onwards, the population grew. Seville’s monopoly on trade with Spanish America was abolished. This had immediate consequences in Galicia, where trade, agriculture and fishing flourished.
In 1808, France invaded Spain and the Spanish War of Independence (1808-1814) began. Galicia itself was not occupied by the French until early 1809. However, resistance was fierce and by mid-1809 the French troops had already been expelled. Nationalist movements emerged in the turbulent 19th century. Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia tried to save their language and traditions from the dominance of the official Spanish-speaking culture.
The 20th century
In the 20th century, several regions were given autonomy. From 1979, Galicia was able to form its own government. Due to its remote location, many traditions have been preserved in Galicia. In the 20th century, Galicia began to develop in terms of culture, trade and industry. Nowadays traditions go hand in hand with modernization.
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of Galicia and a lively university city. But it is above all a busy religious center. The discovery of the alleged tomb of the apostle James in the 9th century made the city the most important Christian pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome. In the center is Praza do Obradoiro, one of the most beautiful squares in Spain. The Baroque facade of the cathedral dominates the square. Around the square is a group of historic buildings, built for religious purposes and in the Renaissance and Baroque styles. There are also a number of monuments outside the center. Worth seeing are the Convento de Santo Domingo de Bonaval northeast of the center, and the Colexiata Santa Maria la Real do Sar east of the city.
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela / Source: Gustavoboulhosa, PixabayThe Catedral de Santiago is located at the Praza do Obradoiro . This monument to Saint James stands on the site of a 9th-century basilica. The current building dates from the 11th-13th centuries. The structure of the cathedral is unmistakably Romanesque: cruciform, sober, robust and covered with a barrel vault with girdle arches. The richly decorated 18th-century facade was built in Baroque style. The Baroque facade houses the Pórtico da Gloria , the main gate. To the right of the main gate is the cloister , where you will find the entrance to the cathedral museum . This museum includes the library and chapter house . The collection consists of manuscripts, carpets and an archaeological collection. The high altar is at the very back of the cathedral . Behind the altar, visitors can touch the silver cloak of the statue of James. One can also enter the crypt , under the altar. Here lie the remains of James and two of his disciples in silver-studded coffins. The crypt is located in the original 9th century foundation.
Almost 1 km northeast of the center is the Convento de Santo Domingo de Bonaval . The Museo do Pobo Galego is located in this 17th-century monastery . This ethnographic museum has a collection about the history and culture of Galicia. The thematic division highlights topics such as traditional professions, clothing, music, architecture and paintings. A few kilometers east of the city is the Colexiata Santa Maria la Real do Sar . Huge arches support the walls of this 17th century church. The cloister with the double arches and richly decorated capitals is particularly worth seeing. The cloister and sacristy house a liturgical and archaeological museum .
Lugo is the oldest provincial capital of Galicia. The city was founded in the 1st century BC. conquered by the Romans from the Celts. The Romans built a wall here, which today still surrounds the old city. The wall is one of the best preserved city walls in Spain. Over the centuries he has protected the city against the Suevi, the Moors and the Normans.
The city wall of Lugo / Source: Tapetum, Flickr (CC BY-SA-2.0)All sights can be found within the city walls . The city wall is approximately 6 m thick and 11 m high. Its length is 2 km with 10 gates and 71 towers. You can walk on the wall with a beautiful view of the city. The most important monument within the walls is the Catedral , south of the old city. This 12th-century Romanesque-Gothic cathedral is modeled after the Cathedral of Santiago. Over the centuries, other style elements were added, such as a neoclassical facade and a Baroque cloister. The choir and a number of altars are Renaissance. Just north of the cathedral is the Pazo Episcopal . This Baroque episcopal palace was built in the 18th century. It resembles an aristocratic pazo (stone villa). The Museo Provincial is located in the center . This museum is housed in the former monastery of San Francisco (15th century). The collection consists of Celtic and Roman finds, sundials and paintings.
The Praza Maior in Ourense / Source: Jl.cernadas, Flickr (CC BY-2.0) Ourense
Ourense was built around the hot springs of the Fonte das Burgas. From this fountain, on the edge of the center, medicinal water still flows, which is also used to heat a number of houses. On the Praza Maior , the main square, there are 18th and 19th century buildings, the town hall and the former episcopal palace. A few hundred meters from the main square stands the Catedral de San Martín . This cathedral was built in 572 and rebuilt in the 12th and 13th centuries. The main entrance, the Pórtico del Paraiso, is a beautifully carved portal with polychrome decorations. The high altar contains a 16th-century gilded altarpiece by Cornelis de Holanda. The center of the three-part work of art is a pieta of statues reminiscent of the figures of the Pórtico da Gloria in Santiago. Near the cathedral is the Iglesia de Santa Maria Madre . A Suevi temple once stood on the site of this church. The church was rebuilt in 1088 and served as the first cathedral. The church is popular for the statue of the Cristo do Santo Entierro, which can only be touched by initiates. Near the church is the 14th-century Convento San Francisco . It houses the Museo Arqueolóxico Provincial . The archaeological finds date back to the Roman and Suevian periods. North of the city, the Puente Romano spans the Rio Miño. This Roman bridge with seven arches is 307 m long. It was built on a Roman foundation and is still in use.
The coves of the Rías Baixas / Source: Abesol, Pixabay Rías Baixas
The Rías Baixas is located in the southern part of the west coast of Galicia. It consists of four large rías (fjord-like inlets), surrounded by a green landscape. The beaches are beautiful, you can swim safely and the climate here is milder than on the coast in the north. Along the Rías Baixas there are good seaside resorts such as Vilagarcia de Arousa, A Toxa, O Grove, Sanxenxo and Panxón. A large part of the Rías Baixas is still untouched, such as the stretch between Muros and Noia. The most interesting places are Pontevedra and Noia.
Pontevedra is the lively provincial capital, beautifully situated on the Ría de Pontevedra. The city’s most important monuments are its many churches. You will also find 18th and 19th century buildings, a museum and a Roman bridge. Muros and Noia are located on the northernmost ria, the Ría de Muros e Noia . The coast between these two places is still unspoilt. Muros is a harbor town without any sights. Noia’s main attraction is the Iglesia de San Martino . The portal of this church is richly decorated with saints and Biblical figures. Vilagarcia de Arousa is located on the Ría de Arousa . This is a popular seaside resort and has a harbor with water sports facilities. In the same ria is A Toxa , a small island connected to the mainland by a bridge. A Toxa is one of the most stylish seaside resorts in Galicia. Here you will find a casino, good beaches, a marina and all kinds of other sports facilities. Near the bridge is O Grove , a holiday resort and harbour. Sanxenxo is located on the Ría de Pontevedra . With its vibrant nightlife, long promenade and beautiful beaches, Sanxenxo is one of the most popular seaside resorts of the Rías Baixas. Panxón is located on the Ría de Vigo , a popular holiday resort with beautiful sandy beaches.
Fisterra is located more than 25 km northwest of the Ría de Muros e Noia . About 3 km further south is Cabo Fisterra . The cape, which offers a grand view, is the westernmost point of the Spanish mainland. The lighthouse, on the dangerous Costa da Morte, is a symbol of Galicia. Many pilgrims come here, after completing the journey to Santiago, to throw their walking stick into the sea. In Fisterra the pilgrims burn the clothes they wore on their pilgrimage.
View of the harbor of Vigo / Source: Kai670 / GFDL Publicada, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-3.0) Vigo
Vigo is beautifully situated at the mouth of the Ría de Vigo, spanned by a high suspension bridge. The largest city in Galicia is also the largest fishing port in Spain. Vigo is also an industrial city that has a marina, fishing and trading port. Vigo has only recently become a prosperous city. It has only played a role in the national economy since the end of the 19th century. Over the centuries, Vigo has had to withstand numerous attacks from the sea. In 1589, the English attacked Vigo in response to the Spanish Armada’s attack on England.
Surrounded by hills and forests, Vigo is attractive, but poor in sights. Despite the absence of ancient monuments, the city has a strikingly modern face. You will see this on the Praza de España . Here is the modern bronze horse statue by local artist Juan José de Oliveira (1928-2002). The oldest part of the city, the Barrio del Berbes , is an attractive harbor district. There are many bars, cafes and restaurants along the streets. The Mercado de la Piedra sells affordable fish and shellfish.
A Coruña is the oldest city in Galicia and was known in ancient times as a point of great strategic value. The city is located on a mushroom-shaped peninsula and has been an important trading port for centuries. The elegant city center is surrounded by a number of important historical monuments.
The Torre de Hércules / Source: Luis Miguel Bugallo Sánchez (Lmbuga), Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-3.0) The city’s main square is the Plaza de Maria Pita . The square is home to the neo-Renaissance town hall , with three enormous domes. The seaside promenade, the Avenida de la Marina, is known for its houses with large, glazed balconies ( galerías ). Behind the attractive promenade lie the city’s busy shopping streets. In the eastern part of the center is the Igreja Colegiata de Santa Maria del Campo . This 13th-century church has a beautiful portal with a depiction of the Adoration of the Magi from the East . On the north side of the center is the Museo de Belas Artes . The collection of this museum consists of Spanish and foreign paintings from the 16th to the 20th century. You will also find Galician art from the 19th and 20th centuries. Goya is represented with some beautiful sketches. More than 1.5 km north of the center is the Torre de Hércules . It is the oldest working lighthouse in the world. The lighthouse was built in the 2nd century AD. built by the Romans and rebuilt in the 18th century. You can climb the 59.5 m high tower for panoramic views of the ocean.
The Rías Altas is located between A Coruña and Ribadeo, on the north coast. It is characterized by rías (coves), bays and headlands. The inland hills are covered with pine and eucalyptus forests. There are many charming towns, colorful fishing villages and small beaches.
The pristine beaches of the Rías Altas / Source: Veroarmesto, PixabayTo the east lies Ribadeo , a fishing village with an attractive harbour. To the west of this lies Foz . This fishing village has two small beaches and beautiful parks. Viveiro is located more than 30 km west . It is the most beautiful and popular seaside resort of the Rías Altas. You will find good beaches, hotels and restaurants. In addition, the seaside resort has a medieval wall, a medieval bridge, two churches and a town hall. Further west lies Ortigueira . The main attractions here are the pristine beaches, densely forested landscape and steep cliffs. There is also a museum. The Museo Ortegalia offers an exhibition about the prehistory of the region. Even further west is Cedeira , one of the most beautiful villages of the Rías Altas. The village has beautiful beaches, a small fishing port and good water sports facilities. To the west of Cedeira lies Ferrol , a port and industrial town. There are some interesting monuments in the Magdalena district. In this 18th-century neighborhood, designed in neoclassical style, there are many houses with glazed balconies. Next to it is the 18th-century Iglesia de San Xulián . About 25 km east of A Coruña lies Betanzos , located in a fertile valley. The steep, narrow streets are lined with old houses and Gothic churches.
Top hotel in Galicia
Gran Hotel Nagari Boutique & Spa in Vigo
This luxurious hotel is located in the heart of Vigo, close to the harbor district and the shopping area. The spacious, chic rooms are equipped with the latest technological gadgets such as a Playstation, a flat-screen TV and free WiFi. The hotel is an oasis of peace, harmony and well-being of body and mind. Numerous relaxing and stimulating treatments are available in the spa. The spa is equipped with a sauna and a spa bath. The treatments available include massages, facials and body treatments. Ayurveda treatments are also possible.
The climate of Galicia is influenced by Atlantic air currents. Galicia has a maritime climate with not too hot summers, mild winters and lots of precipitation. The average maximum temperature is 16 degrees in winter and 28 degrees in summer. Fog and rain characterize the weather in Galicia, which has the highest precipitation averages in Spain. Due to the abundant rainfall, Galicia is the greenest region in the country. By far the most precipitation falls in December and January. Although summers are mainly warm and sunny, it can rain at regular intervals. July and August are the warmest and sunniest months and are therefore the tourist high season. The attractive south-west coast, the Rías Baixas, has beautiful beaches and is safe for swimming. The climate here is milder than on the rougher north coast. The sea water temperature fluctuates between 14 and 19 degrees.
Food and drink
Galicia is famous for its wealth of seafood. The coast has a rich supply of fish and shellfish, inland meat is more common. The region also produces some delicious cheeses.
Typical food from Galicia is pulpo a la gallega (boiled squid in a spicy paprika sauce). Another regional specialty is pimientos del Padrón (green peppers fried in olive oil with sea salt). Lacón con greios (shoulder ham with peas)
is also popular . Galicia also has a number of local delicacies. There are mussel farms along the rias of the Rías Baixas. This is where the delicacy percebes (barnacles) comes from. The sweet tarta de Santiago (almond cake) comes from Santiago de Compostela . Galicia is also known for its cheeses. The tetilla is made on the green fields inland . This cheese has a buttery structure and a mild taste. Another cheese is san simón . This delicious smoked cheese comes from Vilalba, between A Coruña and Lugo.
The vineyards of the Ribeira Sacra / Source: JustitoElNotario, Pixabay Wine is also produced in Galicia. The region offers modern, fresh and aromatic white and red wines. Galicia has five wine regions: Rías Baixas, Ribeiro, Valdeorras, Ribeira Sacra and Monterrei. The largest and most important wine region is in the Rías Baixas area. The best white wines in Galicia are made here. In Valdeorras, Ribeira Sacra and Monterrei, in addition to good white wines, a few quality red wines are also made. The Ribeiro area produces dry white wines and a port-like red wine. Popular wines from Galicia are the albariño (Rías Baixas), the loureira (Rías Baixas) and the treixadura (Ribeiro).
Party and event
The isolated location contributed to the preservation of many traditions in Galicia. The inhabitants of Galicia have a wealth of folklore and myths. They also love to party and the Galician calendar is full of all kinds of activities. Almost every town or village has a patron saint whose day is celebrated with parades, singing, dancing and fireworks. Some fiestas (celebrations), such as Saint James’s name day in Santiago de Compostela, attract many tourists.
The Peliqueiros in Laza / Source: Ramon Piñeiro, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-2.0) Os Peliqueiros
The Carnival of Os Peliqueiros takes place in February or early March (depending on the date of Easter). This carnival festival is held in Laza, a town southwest of Ourense. The origins of the festival are unknown, but it is probably a Celtic or Roman tradition. The so-called Peliqueiros are central. They are dressed in extravagant costumes with grinning masks, semi-circular miters and cowbells on their belts. On the last Carnival Sunday, the Peliqueiros take to the streets. They jump and dance, and hit bystanders with birch branches. The bystanders are not allowed to hit back. On the morning of Carnival Monday, a battle takes place, with flour, water and live ants as ammunition. The Laza carnival ends on Tuesday with a satirical recitation of ‘the will of the donkey’ and the burning of a doll.
Feast of Saint James
The largest fiesta in Galicia takes place on July 25, the day of Saint James. This festival is celebrated every year in Santiago de Compostela in honor of the holy apostle James. The festivities begin on July 24 and last approximately two weeks. The most important day is July 25, when the traditional offering is provided in the cathedral of Santiago by the king or a representative of the royal family. On July 25 and the following weeks there are all kinds of cultural festivities, such as processions and folkloric manifestations. On the night of July 24 to 25 there will be fireworks at Praza do Obradoiro. The celebration is especially exuberant in a holy year (if July 25 falls on a Sunday).
Those looking for entertainment will certainly feel at home in Galicia. The region has many interesting museums and numerous fiestas. You can also take part in excursions that visit important sights. Nightlife enthusiasts will also not be bored in Galicia.
There is a lot to see and experience in Galicia during the day, but the region also has an extensive nightlife. The most popular entertainment centers are in Santiago de Compostela and A Coruña. Other places have little or no entertainment options. Santiago de Compostela has a cheerful nightlife. In the evening the city does not give the impression of being a religious center. The entire city center has dozens of eateries, bars and cafes. The nightlife in A Coruña is slightly more exuberant. Eateries, cafés, bars and discos are lined up around the Plaza de Maria Pita.
The Auditorio de Galicia in Santiago / Source: Gblanco, Pixabay Concerts, theater and films
In addition to the vibrant fiestas, Galicia also offers concerts, theater and films. The concert hall par excellence is the Auditorio de Galicia in Santiago de Compostela. In addition to concerts with classical music, the building also offers space for temporary art exhibitions. A Coruña is home to the most famous theater in Galicia, the Teatro Rosalía de Castro . There are cinemas in many cities. A Coruña has a mega complex as a cinema, the Yelmo Los Rosales . Most films are dubbed in Spanish. Galicia also has an important film festival. The Independent Film Festival is held in Ourense .
Galicia is best known for the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. The nice weather and beautiful landscape make the region very suitable for walking. Walking is popular, but Galicia also offers opportunities to undertake other activities.
Windsurfing in the Rías Baixas / Source: MonicaVolpin, Pixabay Cycling is also popular. You can rent bicycles in many places in the region. There are beautiful roads here on which you can cycle quietly. The rias on the coast are popular with active holidaymakers. In the Rías Altas you can explore the rias with a pleasure boat. The Rías Altas also offers good water sports opportunities. The area is ideal for sailing, snorkeling, diving and fishing. You can also enjoy water sports in the Rías Baixas. Vilagarcia de Arousa and Sanxenxo have a harbor with water sports facilities. From here you can sail, snorkel and dive. Praia da Lanzada, near Sanxenxo, is a beautiful beach popular with windsurfers. Fishing is also a popular sport in Galicia. The best fishing spots, especially for trout, can be found in the Eume, Tambre and Miño rivers. In Galicia the golfer has also been taken into account. The most important golf courses in Northern Spain can be found in Galicia, they are located in a beautiful landscape. The Ría de Vigo Club de Golf (18 holes, par 72) is located in Vigo. The La Toja Golf course (9 holes, par 72) is located on an island off the coast of the Rías Baixas.
Travel to Galicia
Arrival by plane
Santiago de Compostela can be reached from Schiphol by various airlines. There are daily flights and the flight time for a direct flight is 1 hour and 45 minutes. There are also daily flights from Schiphol to Santiago with a stopover in Madrid. The flight time is then at least 4.5 hours. From Santiago airport you can travel in various ways. Rental cars and taxis are available at the airport. There are also regular buses from the airport to central Santiago.
From the center of Santiago de Compostela, trains run to Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra, Vigo and A Coruña. There are also buses from the center of Santiago, with connections to all cities in Galicia.
The highway towards A Coruña / Source: Luis Miguel Bugallo Sánchez, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-3.0) By car
From the Netherlands or Belgium, first drive towards Paris and then to Bordeaux and Biarritz. Via Biarritz you reach the border with Spain and continue towards San Sebastián. At San Sebastián take the AP8/N634 towards Bilbao. After Bilbao take the A8/N634 towards Santander. After Santander take the A8/N634/N632 towards A Coruña via Gijón and Vilalba. Just after Vilalba take the A6/NVI towards A Coruña. At Betanzos take the AP9 towards Santiago de Compostela. The distance from Utrecht to Santiago de Compostela is approximately 2000 km.
Traveling in Galicia
Santiago de Compostela is the most important town in Galicia. The historic heart of Santiago can easily be explored on foot. Santiago is also the ideal starting point for exploring the region.
A number of places are accessible by rail, such as Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra, Vigo and A Coruña. There are also tourist train routes, with the opportunity to visit sights along the way. Narrow-gauge trains run along the Rías Altas from Ribadeo to Ferrol via Foz, Viveiro and Ortigueira. Along the Rías Baixas, trains stop in Padrón, Vilagarcia de Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo.
The bus is a good alternative to the train. The bus is faster between the smaller towns and also runs more often. The bus network connects most towns and villages. The following places have a bus station: Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Ourense, Vigo, A Coruña, Pontevedra, Betanzos, Fisterra and A Toxa.
To reach the more remote areas, renting a car is the best option. For a rental car you can go to the airport, the major train stations and in the larger cities. There is a highway from Ferrol in the north to Vigo in the south, via Santiago de Compostela and Pontevedra. A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense, Noia and Sanxenxo can also be reached by highway. The other places can be reached by secondary roads.
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