5 Examples of Natural Disasters

5 Examples of Natural Disasters
In general, a disaster can be defined as an event or series of events that threatens and disrupts life and livelihood caused by natural and/or human factors, resulting in loss of life, environmental damage, material losses and psychological impacts.

Based on the causes, disasters are divided into three types, namely natural disasters, non-natural disasters and social disasters.

Just as the name suggests, natural disasters are disasters caused by natural events. This is the reason why natural objects are difficult to prevent. However, natural disasters can still be predicted and anticipated to minimize losses and casualties.

To find out more about natural disasters, below is a complete explanation

What are Natural Disasters

In general, natural disasters are disasters caused by natural events or series of events.

The definition of natural disaster according to the opinions of several experts, including:

  • According to Coburn AW, a natural disaster is an event or series of events that results in casualties and/or damage, loss of property, infrastructure, important services or means of life on a scale beyond normal capacity.
  • According to Heru Sri Haryanto, the definition of a natural disaster is the occurrence of damage to normal life patterns, which is detrimental to human life, social structure and the emergence of community needs.
  • According to Kamadhis UGM, the definition of a natural disaster is a series of events caused by natural phenomena, so that these events result in material loss, loss of life and environmental damage.
  • According to Diva, the definition of a natural disaster is an event that occurs in nature that has a major impact on the population of living things, whether humans, plants or animals.

Examples of Natural Disasters in Indonesia

The following are five examples of natural disasters that have occurred in Indonesia and their explanations.

1. Earthquake

Examples of Natural Disasters (Freepik) 

Earthquakes are vibrations or shocks that occur on the earth’s surface caused by collisions between earth plates, active faults, volcanic activity or rock collapse.

Earthquakes themselves cannot be predicted when they will occur. The estimate that can be obtained is the range or magnitude of the earthquake that will occur.

To monitor the magnitude of an earthquake that occurs, a tool called a seismograph is used using the Moment Magnitude scale . The local quantity of 5 magnitudes is called the Richter Scale.

In Indonesia, this natural disaster occurred in Aceh on December 26 2004 which claimed many lives. An earthquake measuring 9.1 to 9.3 on the Richter Scale struck the seabed west of Aceh, followed by a tsunami that devastated Aceh and its surroundings.

2. Tsunamis

Tsunamis are natural disasters that can be caused by earthquakes centered in the middle of the sea, seabed landslides, underwater volcanic eruptions, and meteor strikes in the sea.

Literally, the meaning of the word tsunami is “big waves in the harbor”, namely the movement of water bodies caused by sudden vertical changes in sea level. Tsunami comes from the Japanese words, “tsu” = harbor and “nami” = wave.

Just like earthquakes, tsunami disasters cannot be predicted. Even though currently there are tsunami detection tools, the nature of these tools is only as a warning because tsunamis come at high speed and in a short time.

One example of a tsunami event in Indonesia is the December 22 2018 tsunami event, which was caused by the eruption of Anak Krakatau in the Sunda Strait and hit the coastal areas of Banten and Lampung, Indonesia.

3. Flood

Flooding is an event or situation where an area or land is submerged due to an increased volume of water.

Floods are usually caused by high rainfall during the rainy season. This disaster can be made worse by human factors if river water channels are inadequate so that water overflows into settlements and water catchment areas disappear into the ground.

In Indonesia, DKI Jakarta is one of the cities that often experiences flooding every year. Therefore, to deal with high rainfall, the local government built infiltration wells to help absorb water into the ground so that it does not inundate areas at risk of flooding.

4. Landslide

Landslides are geological events in the form of movements of soil or rock masses of various kinds and types, such as falling rocks and large lumps of soil.

Landslide disasters can be caused by two factors, namely driving and triggering factors. Driving factors are factors that influence the condition of landslide materials. Meanwhile, trigger factors are factors that cause the movement of landslide material.

Landslide events generally occur on hillsides or mountains with sloping land positions. The triggers include heavy rainfall and this is made worse by the denudation of forests or trees due to deforestation.

Apart from that, landslides can also occur naturally, for example due to less dense soil conditions accompanied by heavy rain and steep slope conditions.

One of the landslide disasters that has occurred in Indonesia is a landslide in Cigarehong Village, Cimapag Hamlet, which is in Sirnaresmi, Cisolok, Sukabumi Regency, West Java on December 31 2018.

5. Mount Erupts

Volcanic eruptions are part of volcanic activity which is also known as eruption. This natural disaster can cause a number of dangers such as hot clouds, heavy ashfall, poison gas, ejections of material/flare, poison gas, lava, tsunamis and lava floods.

Volcanic eruptions can occur due to magma deposits in the bowels of the earth being pushed by high pressure gas, causing an eruption. Volcanic activity status is divided into alert, alert, alert categories and the peak is the eruption category.

One example of a volcanic eruption disaster that has occurred in Indonesia is the 2010 Merapi eruption, which was a series of volcanic events.

At the end of September 2010, Mount Merapi in Yogyakarta began carrying out seismic activity and caused a volcanic eruption on October 26 2010. As a result of the eruption, at least 353 people died, including Mbah Maridjan.

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