Unveiling the Functions of Parathyroid Glands: Regulating Calcium Balance in the Body

The parathyroid glands are small, pea-sized glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. Despite their small size, these glands play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of calcium in the body. In this article, we will explore the functions of the parathyroid glands and their significance in regulating calcium levels, bone health, and overall bodily functions. Understanding the role of these glands is essential for comprehending the intricate mechanisms that ensure the optimal functioning of our bodies.

Understanding Parathyroid Glands

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid gland in the neck. Despite their similar name, the parathyroid glands are distinct from the thyroid gland and have different functions. Each parathyroid gland is approximately the size of a grain of rice and is responsible for producing and releasing parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is a hormone that plays a vital role in regulating calcium levels in the body.

Functions of Parathyroid Glands

1. Calcium Regulation

The primary function of the parathyroid glands is to regulate the levels of calcium in the body. Calcium is a crucial mineral that is involved in various physiological processes, including muscle contraction, nerve function, blood clotting, and bone health. The parathyroid glands monitor the levels of calcium in the blood and release PTH when calcium levels are low. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase calcium absorption and release, ensuring that the body maintains an optimal calcium balance.

2. Bone Health

The parathyroid glands play a significant role in maintaining bone health. When calcium levels in the blood are low, PTH stimulates the release of calcium from the bones. This process, known as bone resorption, helps increase the levels of calcium in the blood. However, prolonged excessive release of PTH can lead to bone loss and weaken the skeletal structure, potentially resulting in conditions such as osteoporosis. The parathyroid glands, therefore, contribute to the overall health and strength of the skeletal system.

3. Vitamin D Activation

Another important function of the parathyroid glands is the activation of vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the intestines. When calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates the kidneys to convert inactive vitamin D into its active form, known as calcitriol. Calcitriol enhances the absorption of calcium from the intestines, ensuring that the body receives an adequate supply of this vital mineral. The parathyroid glands and vitamin D work together to maintain calcium homeostasis in the body.

4. Kidney Function

The parathyroid glands also play a role in kidney function. PTH acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of calcium and decrease the reabsorption of phosphate. This process helps maintain the balance of these minerals in the blood. Additionally, PTH stimulates the kidneys to convert inactive vitamin D into its active form, as mentioned earlier. By regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood, the parathyroid glands contribute to proper kidney function and overall mineral balance.

5. Hormone Regulation

In addition to its role in calcium regulation, PTH also interacts with other hormones in the body. For example, PTH works in opposition to calcitonin, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that helps lower blood calcium levels. The interplay between PTH and calcitonin ensures a delicate balance of calcium in the body. Moreover, PTH can also influence the production and release of other hormones, such as insulin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormones, further highlighting the interconnectedness of various bodily functions.


1. What causes parathyroid gland disorders?

Parathyroid gland disorders can be caused by various factors. The most common disorder is hyperparathyroidism, which occurs when the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH. This can lead to excessive calcium levels in the blood, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, kidney stones, and bone pain. On the other hand, hypoparathyroidism is a condition where the parathyroid glands produce insufficient PTH, leading to low calcium levels. This condition can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling sensations.

2. Can parathyroid disorders be treated?

Yes, parathyroid disorders can be treated. The treatment depends on the specific disorder and its underlying cause. In cases of hyperparathyroidism, surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland(s) may be necessary. In hypoparathyroidism, calcium and vitamin D supplements are often prescribed to maintain proper calcium levels. Regular monitoring and management of the condition are essential to prevent complications and maintain overall health.

3. Can parathyroid disorders affectother organs in the body?

Yes, parathyroid disorders can have an impact on other organs in the body. When the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of PTH, as in the case of hyperparathyroidism, it can lead to an imbalance in calcium levels. This can affect organs such as the kidneys, causing the formation of kidney stones. High levels of calcium in the blood can also lead to gastrointestinal issues, including constipation and stomach ulcers. Additionally, excessive PTH can weaken the bones, increasing the risk of fractures and bone pain.

4. How are parathyroid disorders diagnosed?

Parathyroid disorders are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Blood tests are used to measure calcium, PTH, and other relevant hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scans, or nuclear medicine scans may be used to locate any abnormalities in the parathyroid glands. These diagnostic tools help determine the presence and nature of the disorder, guiding the appropriate treatment plan.

5. Can lifestyle choices affect parathyroid gland function?

While lifestyle choices may not directly impact the function of the parathyroid glands, they can influence overall calcium balance and bone health. Maintaining a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is crucial for optimal parathyroid gland function. Regular exercise, especially weight-bearing exercises, helps strengthen the bones and prevent bone loss. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking also contribute to better bone health. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, individuals can support the proper functioning of the parathyroid glands and maintain optimal calcium levels.


The parathyroid glands are essential components of the endocrine system, responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body. Through the production and release of parathyroid hormone (PTH), these small glands play a crucial role in maintaining bone health, activating vitamin D, and ensuring proper kidney function. Understanding the functions of the parathyroid glands helps us appreciate the intricate mechanisms that contribute to the overall balance and well-being of our bodies. By optimizing our lifestyle choices and seeking appropriate medical care when necessary, we can support the optimal functioning of the parathyroid glands and maintain optimal calcium balance for a healthy and vibrant life.

Keyboards: parathyroid glands, calcium regulation, bone health, vitamin D activation, kidney function, hormone regulation, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid disorders, calcium balance