5 Characteristics of eukaryotic cell

A eukaryotic cell is the type of cell that is present in multicellular organisms such as animals, plants, and fungi. Some characteristics of a eukaryotic cell are the presence of a defined nucleus and its ability to form specialized tissues and organs.

The parts of a eukaryotic cell are made up of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and organelles.

If you want to know more about what a eukaryotic cell is, its characteristics and its parts , we invite you to continue reading this article where you will find more information about the types of eukaryotic cell, functions and more.

What is a eukaryotic cell

A eukaryotic cell is a complex cell found in multicellular organisms , such as animals, plants, and fungi. The eukaryotic cell is a type of cell present in some living beings, which is characterized by having a defined nucleus that houses genetic material inside . In addition, these cells also have internal organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, that carry out various metabolic functions.

The main difference between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell is the complexity of their organization, for example the DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found within a nucleus, compared to a prokaryotic cell that has DNA dispersed throughout its cytoplasm.

Characteristics of a eukaryotic cell

  1. They have a more complex organization compared to prokaryotic cells, which lack a defined nucleus.
  2. Its cells contain a defined cell nucleus and are surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
  3. Its nucleus houses the genetic material .
  4. It has numerous internal organelles that are surrounded by membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria.
  5. They form specialized tissues and organs, and therefore carry out a wide range of functions .

Types of eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic animal cell: it has three main parts: cell nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. This type of cell is present in different tissues that make up complex organisms, such as humans. It has mitochondria, centrioles and does not have a cell wall. In this article you will find more information about the Animal Cell: parts and functions .

Eukaryotic plant cell: it is present in plants, and unlike other eukaryotic cells, it carries out the process of photosynthesis. Its type of nutrition is autotrophic, it has a cell wall, chloroplasts and a large central vacuole. Learn more about the Plant Cell: parts and functions .

Fungal eukaryotic cell: type of eukaryotic cell present in fungi. A fungal cell has a cell membrane, cytoplasm , defined nucleus and cell wall. It also has organelles such as mitochondria, centrioles, Golgi apparatus and ribosomes.

Parts of the eukaryotic cell

Knowing the eukaryotic cell and its parts is of great importance, since from this we can make a comparison with other types of cells. The parts of the eukaryotic cell are:


  • Nucleus: is the place where genetic information is stored in a compact form and where RNA synthesis occurs. Discover the Functions of RNA .
  • Cell wall: Not all eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. Those that have it use it to provide support, protection and regulate the exchange of components with the environment.
  • Ribosomes: are responsible for synthesizing proteins and releasing them into the cytoplasm when they are complete.
  • Cytoplasm: is the region where cellular organelles are found. It contains a cytoskeleton of microtubules and is composed of a fluid called cytosol, which contains amino acids, ions, glucose and other molecules.
  • Mitochondria: has folds in its internal membrane, called cristae, that increase the surface area where the electron transport chain occurs during cellular respiration.
  • Chloroplast: organelle present in the cytoplasm of plant cells. It is commonly disc-shaped, and has the function of carrying out photosynthesis .
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: It is an organelle with folds and covered by ribosomes, located near the cell nucleus.
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: similar to the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but lacks ribosomes and performs different functions.
  • Golgi apparatus: It is made up of flattened sacs and is involved in the processing and packaging of proteins and lipids .
  • Lysosomes: are vesicles that contain various enzymes and are involved in intracellular digestion.
  • Peroxisomes: they are also vesicles, they are responsible for producing water and oxygen through specific enzymes that act on hydrogen peroxide.
  • Centrioles: structures that form during meiosis and provide a scaffold for the organization of chromosomes. In this article you will find more information about Meiosis: what it is and phases .
  • Cilia or flagella: they are extensions used for locomotion or capturing particles.
  • Eukaryotic cell: what it is, characteristics and its parts – Parts of the eukaryotic cell

Functions of a eukaryotic cell

  • Nutrition: consists of incorporating nutrients within itself to transform it into substances necessary to replenish its cellular structures, and is also important as a source of energy to perform its functions. The eukaryotic cell has two types of nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic. We recommend you read Cellular Nutrition: what it is and phases .
  • Relationship with the environment: consists of the ability of all cells to receive stimuli from the environment that surrounds them and react to them. This ability is called irritability.
  • Reproduction: consists of the formation of daughter cells from an initial cell (or mother cell ). There are two types of reproduction processes in cells: mitosis and meiosis. In this article you will find more information about cellular reproduction .

Now that you know what a eukaryotic cell is, its characteristics and what its parts are, don’t miss this article with the different types of cells that exist.

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