4 Characteristics of the Securities

Values are defined as virtual entities; They do not exist in reality, they are not the property of objects, they are attributed to things by a subject. Value always implies a relationship between a subject and an object, to which the object attributes a certain value.

They are also presented as ideal entities that represent perfection and its opposite. In the pursuit of values, man perfects himself.


The fundamental characteristics of values are matter, hierarchy and polarity:


The matter of values corresponds to their meaning and the sense of their normative or discriminatory function: justice is different from beauty, for example. They have different meanings and functions, although they are essential, however, individuals should not confuse them.


The hierarchy is linked to the way in which values are linked to each other: there are more or less important values depending on the fundamental attitudes of individuals towards life, even sharing the same set of values, individuals can prioritize these values. very diverse forms.


Polarity is linked to the fact that values are grouped according to a positive polarity and a negative polarity (otherwise they would be useless as selection criteria): good, for example, is opposed to evil and could not be understood. without its contrast with its opposite.

Other features

Values have a sociocultural origin: they are born within human societies and function as elements of unity between individuals and, at the same time, as forms of affirmation of individuality.

First of all, the values are always presented on a scale that goes from least to most. This qualitative ordering of values is called hierarchization (as mentioned above), that is, values vary from person to person; Each one has their scale of values that will influence their choices/decisions.

On the other hand, values always appear with a double face: positive and negative. A positive pole (for example: pretty) is always opposed by a negative pole (in the example: ugly).

There are factual judgments and value judgments. By judgments of fact we understand those that are descriptive or of existence. They describe and inform about concrete reality without expressing preferences and appreciations. They can easily be considered true or false, depending on whether or not they conform to reality, and they can be subject to empirical verification. That is to say, with respect to the judgment: “The tree bore fruit,” which is a judgment of fact, I can look and verify whether it is true or not.

Evaluative judgments judge facts and realities based on axiological preferences.

These judgments are not empirically verifiable and are not normally the subject of consensus. They can be of moral, aesthetic, religious, vital, useful appreciation, among others.

Values are action guides, what “sets in motion” the behaviors, the conduct of people. In our lives we are always making value judgments and being guided by them.

These guide life and mark personality; A person defines himself, says who he is, based on the values he has.

Values guide our preferences; I prefer this or that depending on the values I have. For example, if equal rights is an important value to me, I will choose not to discriminate against people based on their race.

Due to values, things are presented differently. That is to say, the world is not all the same for me, there are things that I like and things that I don’t like; There are things I admire and things I don’t; There are things that I respect and others that I don’t respect.

Thus, values give meaning to life, they serve for our personal orientation.

Regarding axiology, the theory of values, we can observe the thesis of subjectivity, which is opposed to that of the objectivity of values, and dahistoricity, which is opposed to the perenniality of values.

The perenniality thesis defends that value does not depend on the historical era. Perenniality is of value and not of the objects in which it is manifested. For example, honesty and friendship have always been considered values over time, their manifestations, examples and realizations are those that can undergo changes.
The historicity thesis defends that values change according to the historical era.

This is linked to an idea of axiological relativism which defends that what is or is not value is completely relative. Everything changes, and values too!

We can affirm, as an intermediate thesis, that although values obviously suffer an influence of time or even new values appear, there is something perennial in values; Friendship will always be an important value, although its concept inevitably undergoes changes.

The theses of subjectivity or objectivity differ because one defends things because they have value, value exists as something absolute, independently of things and men, who only discover them, while the other affirms that things assume value because a subject wants or appreciates those things; Thus value is always a creation of man, being dependent on the appreciation of the subject.

The thesis that reconciles the two positions defends that values do not exist independently of things, they only have value, they do not have an independent existence.

But it is the real properties of things that awaken values. However, things only have value potentially, they only really acquire value when they come into interaction with man. Only in this relationship do values make sense.